Voice synthesis settings
To be able to control the advanced settings effectively, you should
understand the concepts of phoneme and formant (refer to the chapters
All of these parameters help to make the voice sound more natural.
- weak and strong velocity:
When a syllable is sung, the main phoneme is stretched (stretchable
vowel), and most of the power is applied to this phoneme. The strong
setting gives the volume to be applied to this strong phoneme, and the
weak velocity gives the volume to be applied to the other, weaker ones.
- velocity ratio:
Notes of the sung staff include velocity values (output power).
The velocity ratio defines the proportion in which singing
takes these values
- pitch attack:
A singer can start singing a note slightly lower than the pitch at
which it is written. This can be
tuned by the frequency attack. This parameter is given in tenths of a
A negative value (which is generally the case) means the syllable
starts lower than the actual note pitch.
- time shift:
This is the maximum amount of time, in milliseconds, between the time
a syllable is sung and the time it should be. It simulates the
of a singer in time.
- min rest duration:
In order to avoid an abrupt cut-off in the voice each time a brief rest
is encountered, this parameter allows you to define the minimum
duration (in 100ths
of second) required for a rest to be applied. Rests shorter than
this will not be taken into account in the singing voice.
- choir detuning:
When the singer's voice is defines as a choir (see Basic
settings), this parameter sets the maximum imprecision of each
member. A high value enhances the crowd effect, but makes the voices
This is a random variation around a theoretical value. It is defined by
maximum value (jitter power) and a variation speed.
- F0 jitter (fundamental frequency):
This gives a quavering voice, i.e. a small, fast, random variation
of the frequency sung.
- formant jitter on formant #1 (F1),
#2 (F2), formant
This changes the voice timbre while the note is sung (the singer
changes his mouth shape slightly).
- volume jitter
This produces "unintentional" volume variations while a note is sung.
- Drift can be applied to the fundamental
frequency (F0) or
to the volume.
This is a way to smoothly change from one value to another. Because
of its physical nature, the vocal tract evolves from one value to
by a deformation.
Drift can be adjusted with its upward ratio,
its downward ratio, its minimum value and its maximum value.
- upward and downward ratios
after a note ends. Its duration is expressed as a percentage
of the next note's duration.
If the value increases (changing from a weak note to a strong one,
or from a low-pitched note to a high-pitched one), the upward ratio is
If the value decreases, the downward ratio is used.
- minimum and maximum duration
In order to avoid a duration that is too short or too, you can
impose minimum and maximum limits on the drift duration, in hundredths
- Vibrato affects the fundamental frequency
It is a slow, regular variation of the fundamental frequency.
Note that this should not be confused with F0 jitter, which is a fast,
- minimal frequency
is the base frequency of the vibrato oscillation (in tenths of
Hertz). Vibrato commonly ranges from 50 to 70 tenths of Hertz.
lets you increase the vibrato speed when a high-pitched
note is sung. Its value is the number of semitones above A4 (440 Hz)
to increase the vibrato frequency by 1 Hz. For example, with a minimal
frequency of 60 (6 Hz) and a frequency
ratio of 12 semitones (one octave), an A4 will be sung with a 6 Hz
and an A5 with a 7 Hz vibrato...
is the delay before the vibrato actually starts. It is given in
- rise time
is the time during which the vibrato power increases smoothly before
reaching its maximum value. It is expressed in hundredths of second.
is its maximum amplitude (depth) in hundredths of a tone.
lets you increase the vibrato depth when a high-pitched note is sung.
Its value is the number of semitones above A4 (440 Hz) needed to
the vibrato depth by one semitone. For example, with a depth of 20 (1/5
of a tone) and a frequency ratio
of 12 semitones (one octave), an A4 will be sung with a depth of 1/5 of
and an A5 with a depth of one semitone+1/5 of tone...