We saw that rules let you make several instruments play on the same
staff, by differentiating
notes according to graphical criteria. But this system can go further.
The "Special" button in the staff rule
editing window lets you set parameters (effects, velocity, delay...)
will be applied to the note when played.
Example of use:
An interesting application is to
use configurable "Turkish comma" effects to define an alternate tuning.
Alternate tunings are useful for playing non-occidental melodies, or
that use frequency rules other than the 12 semi-tone, equally tempered
(12ET) "usual" scale. Microtonal adjustment
and Alternate tuning chapters will provide
information about these topics.
Previously, we learned that notes that
comply to a rule's criteria (color, pitch, shape...) are played in a
As soon as a note matches a rule,
the instrument and/or special parameters of the rule are applied to the
but the rest of the rules in the set are then skipped.
For example, if you build a rule
based on blue color, that changes the instrument to "Organ", and
rule based on triangular note head shape, that changes the instrument
"Guitar", then a blue note with a triangular head will be played using
"Organ" sound, the first rule to match the note characteristics.
It is possible to define non-blocking rules.
If the "Continue processing" box is checked, rule search does
stop as soon as this rule matches. Thus, the previous note will be
on both "Organ" and "Guitar" instruments.
Example of use:
It is possible, using this feature, to define staves on which several
play the same notes.
You could also define an instrument
related to shape (for example, cross-headed notes play on "Slap bass")
and an effect related to color (for example, red notes are played with
a "bend" effect). Thus, red cross-headed notes will be played using the
bass" instrument and with a bend effect.
"Fundamental note" marker
If the box "note is the fundamental"
is checked in a rule definition, notes that match this rule will be
as the chord fundamental note (root note). This chord fundamental
other rules (even located on a different staff) to be applied according
to the relative position of the note pitch in the current chord. In
this way you can
define rules that apply only to thirds or fifths of the current
chord (see below).
Note pitch rule criterion
criterion lets you apply the rule only to notes of a given pitch. Some
check boxes can change the way the note pitch criterion is evaluated:
If nothing is checked, pitch is evaluated as an absolute value. For
example, if you set the pitch criterion to the
note on the bottom most staff line, with a flat accidental, only E
4th octave notes will match this rule, as well as D sharp, 4th octave
If you check "For all octaves" box, any
E flat or D sharp (whatever its octave is) will match this rule.
If you check "Follow key signature"
box, the note pitch criterion is relative to the base note of the
signature. Your rule will therefore match E flat and D sharp when the
key is C major, but for example, B flat or A sharp if the key is
If you check "Differentiate enharmonics"
box, E flat and D sharp won't be considered the same note anymore. Only
E flat notes will match this rule.
If you check "Relative to fundamental"
box, the note pitch criterion is considered relative to the chord
that has been defined through another rule (see above). C pitch means
to the fundamental", C sharp means "equal to the fundamental plus one
etc. For example, to apply a rule to the major third of the current
you must enter "E" as the note pitch rule criterion.
Examples of use:
- By building a rule like: "notes
with a triangular head are the fundamental note of the current chord,"
you only need to mark all notes that are the root of their chord to
rules apply to, say, major thirds or fifths of any chord of your
score. By simply selecting an appropriate name for your rules, you can
add a "3" mark to all thirds and "5" to all fifths, in order to display
chord-relative name for each note.
- By combining an alternate
tuning with the chord fundamental relative pitch criterion, it is
to alter chord component (third, fifth, minor seventh) frequencies so
that they are played "just", i.e.
at an exact sub-multiple of the chord fundamental note frequency. This
can for example be used in "Barbershop" choirs, in which singers adjust
their voice pitch according to the fundamental, in order to minimize
effects that are due to the imperfection of the traditional occidental
This criterion lets you define
rules that apply to notes according to their velocity. You can, for
example, use different instruments for notes that are played softly,
and for those
Because note velocity is not easily
visible on score, this kind of rule must be used carefully.
This criterion is applied to a given
range of note velocities, and lets you define the velocity range that
Examples of use:
- Build a rule that applies to velocities
from 0 to 64, that outputs on "Organ 1" instrument, still using an
velocity range from 0 to 64 (velocity remains unchanged).
Then, build a rule that applies to velocities from 65 to 127, that
outputs on "Organ 2" instrument, using an output velocity range from 65
to 127 (velocity remains unchanged).
will be played on "Organ1", loud notes on "Organ 2".
- By combining with the "Continue
processing" option (non-blocking rule), it is possible to mix
two instruments smoothly, according to the original note velocity on
To do this, build a rule that applies to velocities from 0 to 127 (the
entire available range) and that outputs on the
"Organ 1" instrument, with an output velocity range from 127 to 0
is inverted: soft notes will be played loud on this instrument, and
notes will be played soft)
Then, build a rule that applies to velocities from 0 to 127, and that
outputs on the "Organ 2" instrument,
with an output velocity range from 0 to 127 (velocity remains
Soft notes will be played on the "Organ
1" instrument, loud notes on "Organ 2", and intermediate values will be
played on both of them, with the influence of "Organ 2" becoming larger